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THE DESTRUCTIVE EFFECT OF JEALOUSY AS REFLECTED IN WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE’S OTHELLO: A PSHYCOLOGICAL APPROACH

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

  1. A.  Background of the Study

Someone who studies English literature is regarded incomplete if the person who studies does not discuss William Shakespeare. William is the one of the greatest playwright in the world. He was a popular and highly regarded playwright. His popularity seems to have increased with the passing of the years. Shakespeare is a symbol of all that is great and good in western literature. The beauty of his language, the subtlety of his characterization, the inclusiveness of his point of view, and the sensationalism of his stories are part of the explanation why Shakespeare’s work is the single greatest achievement in western literature.

Shakespeare’s works can be divided into three kinds, namely, comedy, history, and tragedy. Othello is one of his great tragedies besides hamlet, Julius Caesar, Romeo and Juliet, etc. Othello was written between 1602-1604. Othello take place in Venice (in northern Italy) and Cyprus (an island is the eastern Mediterranean about forty miles south of present-day turkey). Othello, a man of quality and superior intelligence, is brought down by his suspicions of his wife, the lovely Desdemona.

Othello is written in a style based on characterization. Besides that, there are some ironies in this play which can be analyzed and studied. They are verbal irony and dramatic irony. Verbal irony is the contrast between what is said and what is meant. In this play, Othello always said that he be in love with his wife much. On the contrary, he hates his wife due to her betrayal. Another irony in this play is dramatic irony. Dramatic irony is the contrast between what the character thinks to be true and the readers know to be true. The writer knows that Desdemona is innocent, and Lago is very evil. In the fact, Othello believe that his wife has been cheated on him, and really sure with Lago’s speech. The fact’s remain that the larger action which character complete in the course of a play have identifiable motives behind them and thus the audience/readers as critics have every right and duty to analyze character motivation. Iago decides to bring about the downfall of Othelo for a particular reason: he is motive by a love of power as well as by the desire to be revenged for Othello’s promotion of Cassio. Othello become jealously, murders his innocent wife, then commits suicide upon discovery of his mistake. The motivation is simple and uncomplicated, for jealousy is easily defined and understood.

Jealously bring a bad effect to psychological of the person who faces it. It is a psychological conflict. According to Subhan (2003: 75) psychological conflict can result some problem such as stress, making disease such as hard to get a sleep, envy, jealously, anger, hopeless, upset, frustration, dreaming, etc.

Based on the background, the writer is interested to carry out a research on the drama, using title a deconstructive effect of jealously in William Shakespeare’s Othello. Here writer analyzes Othello as the main character who have a bad impact to his life because of his jealousy. By using psychological study to understand, interpret and analyze the story because Othello contains psychological complicated.

B. Identification of the Problem

Based on the background above, the writer gives some identification of the problem as follows:

  1. How is the relationship between love and hate in Othello?
  2. What are the bad impacts of jealousy to Othello’s life?
  3. What does Othello get responsibility for his own downfall?
  4. How does Othello kill his lovely wife, Desdemona?
  5. What are character and characterization of the main characters in Othello?
  6. C.  Limitation of the Problem

Limitation needed to make the point of this research can be focused based on the background and identification, the writer would like to limit the problems in order that research not confused. From the identification above, the writer limit the problems on the question about the relationship between love and hate in Othello. Besides, analyzes the bad impact of jealousy to Othello’s life, by using psychological approach by Wellek and Warren and Subhan’s psychology theory the problems can be analyzed and interpreted well.

D. Formulation of the Problem

Based on the limitation above, the writer formulates problems of this study following questions:

  1. How is the relationship between hate and love in Othello?
  2. What is bad impact of jealousy to Othello’s life?
  3. E.   Objective of the Study

Referring of the formulation above, the objectives of the study are as follows:

  1. To describe the relationship between hate and love in Othello.
  2. To describe the bad impact of jealousy to Othello’s life
  3. F.   Significances of the Study

After the objectives of the study are fulfilled, this study is to give the positive contribution to the writer, especially to the readers. It may become information for several components:

  1. To help students and the teacher comprehend the story of Othello
  2. To enrich the writer’s knowledge about the literary works
  3. To stimulate the beginner to have a good habit at reading in English literary works
  4. To arouse the hearts of the readers about the story of the drama the tragedy of Othello

CHAPTER II

DISCUSSION

  1. A.  Defining the drama

Drama derives from a Greek word meaning to do, to act (Tennyson, 1967:1) among the three literary genres. Drama is one of the most complex forms of art, drawing as it does so many talents and so many resources both physical and spiritual. According to Tennyson (1967:2), drama is the imitation of a complete action, adapted to sympathetic attention of man, developed in a succession of continually interesting and continuously related incident, acted and condition of life. There are four genres of drama, such as:

1. Comedy

According to miller (1996:16) states that comedy is funny and that it has a happy ending. The purpose of comedy is to make us laugh and at the same time, help to illuminate human nature and human weaknesses.

2. Tragedy

Tragedy is a sad play with an unhappy ending. Tragedy is characterized by tragic events, such as misery, despair, and death. Tragedy gives the moral teaching for us to do something without regrets in the future.

  1. Melodrama

Melodrama, like tragedy, has come to mean something quite different from its original semantic roots. A combination of melancholy , music, plus drama, it means “a play with music”. Pramono in his book pengantar drama (1992:4) states that melodrama is used to name a play which emphasizes the side of rudeness, strained situation, and mystery; it is usually formed in detective and horror story.

  1. Farce

Farce is a light entertainment that relies largely on visual humor, situation, and relatively uncomplicated characters. Farce is an easy and funny drama. The content of farce is usually crude, elastic, and vulgar.

 B. Character and Characterization

1. Character

Character speaks about each other, about a self, and about a central emotion. A character is an important part in a story to recognize individuals and figure involved in the story, for it gives both mental and physical feature of individual of figures. Subhan in his book a guide to literary criticism (2003:1) states that major or main characters play an important role in the story while the minor character is regarded as less important than the main one. The major or main character can further be divided into 3 types:

1. Protagonist

Protagonist is the hero that plays an important role in the story. The hero is usually a good man with good characteristics, for example:

a)      He is handsome, clever, or rich

b)      He has a good mentality and his morality is also good

c)      He is wise, sensible, and humble

d)     He loves the poor or takes care of other people

  1. 2.    Antagonist

The antagonist usually refers to the enemy or the challenger of the protagonist. The antagonist character is usually immoral or evil because the protagonist is usually good and true.

  1. 3.    The companion or partner

The protagonist usually has a companion or a partner in pursuing his duty, career, struggle, or aspiration. When a protagonist is oppressed, he is usually helped by a close friend or by a reputable person. In other words, the companion of the protagonist also plays an important role in the story so that sometimes it is difficult for a reader.

  1. 2.    Characterization

Characterization is closely related with a theme. Characterization will explain the relationship of the people. Characterization is an obvious description of the characters in a drama as seen in their attitude, behavior, the way of thinking of life, environment habitat, emotion, etc. to be aware of the means of characterization, we should be more attentive and appreciative of the traits, and moral suggestiveness of the people in the stories, plays that we read.

C. Hate and Love

Someone hates others will bring the incompatible environment one another. The person has a great dislike for something or somebody. Hate is the emotion of intense dislikes; a feeling of dislike so strong that it demand action.

Love is any of a number of emotions related to a sense of strong affection and attachment. According to bailey, A.Becky (2004:13-14) states that love is an action which has four results:

  1. Love increase a comfortable and save feeling
  2. Love influences those who have a dignity to other people who also has a dignity
  3. Love searches the greatest and best inside of other people and in every condition faced
  4. Love accepts the bad or good one/thing sincerely
  5. D.  Conflict and Irony

Conflict is actual or perceived opposition of needs, values and interest. Conflicts come in many shapes and sizes. If person fails to overcome the conflicts he may experience stress. In a big scale, conflicts can become or refer to a war, revolution or other struggles, which may involve the use of force as in the term armed conflict. It usually happens between: person against person, person against environment, person against him/herself and psychological conflicts can bring a bad effect to someone who faces it. According to Subhan (2003:75) psychological conflict can result some problem such as stress, making disease such as hard to get a sleep, jealously, anger, frustrated, stroke, etc.

  1. E.  The relationship between hate and love in Othello
  2. Love

Othello marries Desdemona, a beautiful woman who is a daughter of senator Brabantio. He loves Desdemona very much and treats his wife as a queen. Although many people, including Brabantio dislikes his marriage, Othello still loves his wife and promise to keep her for all of his life. In Othello, love is a force that overcomes large obstacles and is tripped up by small ones. Love provides Othello with intensity but not direction and gives Desdemona access to his heart but not his mind. The great love of Othello can support him to do anything to keep his love with Desdemona. He cannot imagine if his wife leaves him for the other man. He loves her for all of his life and he is ready to die for his love.

  1. Hate

In Othello, hate is an action which show a man who really loves his wife, but become mad when he slandered by his right-hand man which his wife is betraying him. Othello’s hate ruins everything in his life. He hates Desdemona having a special relationship with Cassio. Therefore, he orders Lago to kill Cassio because Cassio love his wife. He wants to revenge the betraying by killing his lovely wife, who he really love s much. He does not want to suffer in his life. Othello feels peaceful if he can accompany Desdemona by killing himself.

  1. Love and hate

Love and hate can be one element that is not separated. Like Othello’s feeling, he loves his lovely wife very much, and he also hates her because of her betrayed.in addition, Othello’s jealousy shows the high sense of belonging of his wife. Because of his love, he cannot think clearly, and feel angry when know his wife is cheating. Therefore, he kills Desdemona in order to prove his love and hate. Love, but hurt and disbelieve to his lover. The death shows that his true love ends with tragic. It’s because of his unfounded jealousy which controls him to kill his lovely wife. Othello say this sentence in act.4 scene 2 pages 172.

’my heart is turned to stone: I strike it, and it hurts my hand. O, the world hath not a sweeter creature’’

Othello is quite emotional at that this point as can be seen by the explanation mark. He is shown to be very upset about Desdemona’s supposed affair. This can be seen by the phrase “stone my heart”. This is in reference to the pain Desdemona is causing him. It is killing his heart and their love as “heart” has connotations to love. By referring to killing Desdemona as a sacrifice this shows that Othello is giving up something. He is giving up his love for Desdemona as he believes that it will hurt him too much to see her with another. Othello loves her too much.

CHAPTER III

CONCLUTION AND SUGGESTION

  1. A.  Conclusion

Based on the discussion on the chapter II, the writer would like to draws some conclusions as follows:

  1. The relationship between love and hate in Othello

Love and hate can be one element that is not separated like Othello’s feeling, he love his lovely wife very much and also hate her because of feel betrayed. In addition, Othello’s jealousy shows the high sense of belonging of his wife. Because of his love, he can’t think clearly, and feel angry when know his wife is cheating. Therefore, he slays Desdemona in order to prove his love and hate. The death shows that his true love ends with tragic.

  1. The bad impact of jealousy to Othello’s life.

Jealousy bring bad effects to Othello’s life, the psychological conflict can result some problem such as stress, envy, anger, etc. in Othello’s play jealousy makes Othello become a rude man and a killer, so that he Killed his lovely wife & then committed suicide.

  1. B.  Suggestion

Based on the discussion on the chapter II, the writer would like to draws some suggestion as follows:

  1. He writer can read & analyze a Shakespeare’s Othello to get a view experience, enjoyment, & lesson that can be taken & revealed from the destructive effect of jealousy as reflected in William Shakespeare’s Othello.
  2. Reading a literary works is an enjoyment and useful activities it will enrich these reader in vocabulary and the language structure because every literary work has its own style & characteristic that can be recognized after reading.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Subhan, Bustami. 2006. Undestanding literary Apreciation: LPPDMF

Subhan, Bustami. 2010. A guide to literary criticism. LPPDMF

_____.1604. William Shakespeare’s Othello. Hetfordshire: wordsworth Ltd.

Rorty, Oksenberg Amelie. 1980. Explaining Emotion. Los Angeles (London): University of    California Press.

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